Thinking critically is judging strength or weakness.
Questions vs noun phrases, generally stating association between two objects. Look out for the explicitness of a claim.
Reasons give grounds for accepting the conclusion.
We have an argument when P and Q have an inference from one another. (P, and so Q). the most basic argument is an inference from a claim (P → Q). Explanation does not equate to argument.
SLOW FOG - is conclusion, reason.
Analyze claims to see which are reasons and which are conclusions.
titles as questions
Title -> statement -> reason -> conclusion
Good idea to break questions down into sub-questions - great ways to stress thinking, break out assumptions. Set parts of your argument into meaningful order, give direction. Reasons and Conclusion should we weighted equally. Don’t infer more than the reasons imply.
How will you make yourself clear?
Determine scope of your argument. Ie focus, time span, geography, etc. Smaller target is easier to hit.
Be careful of words with multiple meanings.
In an argument, make assumptions clear.
Statement = where you stand.
Ambiguity = multiple meanings.
Slippery use of words is self defeating.
Ordering / Indicating:
Claim (P) -> Explanation (E) -> Inference (Q)
Order for reasons can go from small to big, specific to general, early to late, etc.
avoid vagueness by defining the key terms that you will use; ￼ be precise about the scope of your argument; ￼ be aware of any assumptions that you may be making; ￼ take care not to use ambiguous language; ￼ be wary of conflating terms that ordinarily have different uses.
what case have other made?
Counter claim. Can give readers a point of reference. Need reasons why counter is better.